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Indonesia as a Model of Muslim Democracy: Developments, Problems, and Opportunities - ciacookmomicbesch.gq
Constitutional Struggles in the Muslim World. Enroll for Free. From the lesson. Taught By. Ebrahim Afsah Associate Professor.
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Get Started. Still, their goals—such as implementing laws based on sharia and rolling back protections for religious minorities—are often at odds with secularism and democracy.
Indonesia and Malaysia have long had strongholds of conservative, even Islamist ideologies. The northeast of the Malay Peninsula has been a bastion of the conservative Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party PAS , part of the opposition alliance in the last national elections in In Indonesia, conservative and hard-line religious parties have contested many elections, and debates about the role of Islam in the state have existed since the country was founded. Meanwhile, hard-line, sometimes violent groups like the Islamic Defenders Front have been active for twenty years, participating in vigilante violence in many parts of the country against people and groups they accused of doing immoral activities.
Still, the hardest-line parties and organizations have never attained national power.
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Moderate leaders, such as former Indonesian President Abdurrahman Wahid, a liberal cleric turned politician, advocated for minority rights and secular law in the early s. Similarly, the ruling coalition in Malaysia remained so strong—the result of its genuine appeal and simultaneous repression of opposition—that for years it did not have to win over more conservative, PAS voters.
More recently, the two countries have witnessed an upswing in harder-line Islamist sentiment. Within Indonesia, hard-line groups have pushed national government ministers to take repressive stances toward homosexuality, religious minorities, and people who supposedly blaspheme Islam.
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Hard-line Islamist groups—organizing on social media, advocating via sympathizers in government bureaucracies, and building networks in religious schools—have increasingly swayed elections in Indonesia, notably the Jakarta gubernatorial race last year. For the first time, the Islamic Defenders Front and other Islamists played a major role in deciding an outcome in the capital.
In that contest, incumbent Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, known as Ahok, enjoyed high popularity ratings.
But in late and early , the Islamic Defenders Front and conservative organizations held massive rallies against Ahok, which sometimes focused on his Chinese ethnicity and his Christian faith. Ahok was later convicted of blasphemy for comments he made on the campaign trail and sentenced to two years in jail. Hard-liners are gaining influence for several reasons. For one, top leaders have proven willing to court Islamists, or they did not take seriously enough the threat of hard-line ideology to secularism and to democracy. In Malaysia, the ruling coalition narrowly won the national elections, despite losing the national popular vote.
Najib has aggressively courted conservative voters who historically supported PAS. In the last election, the ruling coalition won only 25 of the 97 urban and suburban seats. Malays and other indigenous groups comprise about 69 percent of the population. Meanwhile, in Indonesia, former President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and Jokowi ignored the growing power of Islamist groups, which have increasingly raised funds from Saudi Arabia.
Challenging the Secular State: Islamization of Law in Modern Indonesia
Yudhoyono took little action as vigilantes targeted Ahmadis , heterodox Muslims, and in the government issued a vague decree that seemed to even sanction their persecution. Before the massive demonstrations against Ahok, Jokowi did not focus on the rising threat of political Islam, instead devoting his energies to programs designed to boost the economy, reduce red tape, and bolster social welfare safety nets.
However, some of the developing support for political Islam is organic. GS Documents. WoS Documents. Scopus Documents. Page 1 of 1 Total Records : SINTA was originally initiated by:. Muslim politics in Indonesia s democratisation: The religious majority and the rights of minorities Indonesia: Democracy and the Promise of Good Governance vol: issue : Book.